Official Name : Republic of Turkey Date of Foundation : 29 October 1923 Capital : Ankara Largest Cities : Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Antalya Area : 814.578 km2 Geographical Coordinates : Eastern Meridians 26° and 45° and Northern Parallels 36° and 42° Coastal Borders : Mediterranean Sea in the south, Aegean Sea in the west and Black Sea in the north Language : The official language is Turkish. English is widely spoken in major cities. Currency : TL (Turkish Lira) 1 US Dollar approximately equals to 1,92 Turkish Lira. 1 Euro approximately equals to 2,55 Turkish Lira. Time Zone : GMT+2; CET +1; and EST (US -East) +7 Business Hours : The workweek in Turkey runs from Monday to Friday. Banks, government offices and majority of corporate offices open at 9 AM and close at 5 PM.
Public Holidays : There are two types of public holidays in Turkey. Those that fall on the same day each year and the religious festivals which change according to the lunar calendar and therefore fall on different dates each year. National Holidays 2013 and 2014 1 January, New Year’s Day : National Holiday. First day of the new year 23 April, National Sovereignty and Children’s Day : National Holiday. Commemoration of the first opening of Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara (1920). Dedicated to the children. 1 May, Labor and Solidarity Day : National Holiday. 19 May, Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth & Sports Day : National Holiday. The arrival of Atatürk in Samsun in 1919, the beginning of the War of Independence. Dedicated to the youth. 30 August, Victory Day : National Holiday. Victory over the allied forces during the final battle in Dumlupınar in 1922, ending the War of Independence. Dedicated to the armed forces. 28 October (½ day) - 29 October (Full day), Republic Day : National Holiday. Anniversary of the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. 2013 Religious Holidays 8 August – 10 August, Sugar Feast : Three-day festival to celebrate the end of fasting (Ramadan) where plenty of sweets are eaten: 15 October - 18 October, Feast of the Sacrifice :Four day festival where sheep are sacrificed/slaughtered and their meat is distributed to the poor. 2014 Religious Holidays 28 July – 30 July, Sugar Feast : Three-day festival to celebrate the end of fasting (Ramadan) where plenty of sweets are eaten: 4 October - 7 October, Feast of the Sacrifice :Four day festival where sheep are sacrificed/slaughtered and their meat is distributed to the poor. Visas : Visas are easily obtained upon arrival at the airport and are required for citizens of most countries. Electricity : 220 Volt. European standard round two-pin sockets. Health Services : Cities and major touristic towns have a selection of private international and public hospitals with good standards. Food : As with many Mediterranean nations Turkish food is very healthy, fresh and enjoyable. Water : Tap water is chlorinated and, therefore, safe to drink. However, it is recommended that you consume bottled water, which is readily and cheaply available. Communications : Turkey has three GSM operators, all of them offering 3G services and almost 99% coverage over the country. Internet service is available all around the country. International Dial Code : +90
The official language of the country is Turkish. It is spoken by 220 million people and is the fifth most widely spoken language in the world. Today's Turkish has evolved from dialects known since the 11th century and is one of the group of languages known as Ural-Altaic, which includes Finnish and Hungarian.
Turkish is written with the Latin alphabet with the addition of six different characters. İt's completely phonetic, i.e. each letter of the alphabet has only one sound, so each word sounds exactly how it is written. During Ottoman times Turkish was written in Arabic script, that made a limit for a number of people who were able to write. In order to improve literacy and therefore to overcome the difficulties of learning and reading Turkish using Arabic script, Turkey switched to the Latin alphabet following Atatürk's initiative started in 1928.
English language has replaced by French and German as the chief secondary language taught in schools and is becoming more widespread. İt is widely spoken and understood by the most of the people all over the Turkish territory. German, Russian and French are also spoken especially in the popular holiday destinations.